In order to fracture shale formations effectively, large volumes of water are required to be pumped into wall frac operations, at very high pressures in short periods of time. Frac water is treated with chemical friction reducers to reduce the loss of pressure from frictional forces during the operation. The friction reducers are high molecular weight polymeric additives, designed to enhance the water displacement in oil wells by considerably reducing the friction pressure experienced during the drilling process.
The anionic, cationic, and non-ionic polyacrylamides are most commonly used as friction reducers in the hydraulic fracturing operations. Friction reducers are used mainly in aqueous base treating fluids with low concentrations. Friction reducer is a highly concentrated surfactant that acts as the drilling fluid lubricant in the operation. When added in the frac water, the friction reducers will uncoil in the drilling process, a torque reducing film is formed both on the drill string and the surface of the mud, and the turbulent flow regime is reduced down to a laminar flow, resulting in lower friction and less pressure loss.
A friction reducer can be in dry-powder form or in liquid form (an oil-based or a water-based). Reductions of upto 80% in fluid friction are possible. The primary function of friction reducer is to allow the application of full treatment with maximum hydro static and pumping pressure and pumping rate, without having excessive friction pressures during the operation.
Typical application rate range from 0.1 gpt up to 1.5 gpt. Individual water characteristics will direct addition rate for optimum conditions.
ZL friction reducers are designed to be used in different kinds of water, especially effective in high saline water. ZL friction reducer will reduce friction by as much as 60% or more.
ZL friction reducers (ZLFR®) can be supplied in liquid form (either in an oil-based emulsion or liquid suspension carrier) or in dry-powder form. The friction reduction achievement in the applications is upto 80%. ZL friction reducers are focusing on performance/$ spent, our products are recognized as high performance and cost-efficient by our oil field clients.
The ZLFR® is a series of special friction reduction polymer products that have been produced by unique polymerization process for slick water application in fresh and 100% produced water. ZLFR® offer a quick hydration and inversion which starts reducing pumping pressure within 10 seconds, approaches maximum friction reduction rate (80%) in less than 20 seconds.
ZL HVFR offers high viscosity and viscoelasticity under different water ranges. Especially for high salinity brine water conditions.
The viscoelasticity of polymer solution is the key for sand suspension and transportation. The high molecular weight associated with engineered hydrolysis level allows ZLFR to yield a great viscoelastic behavior. The constant plateau value in wider linear viscoelastic region indicated ZLFR can carry out the higher shear without destroying the structure of the solution. The strong shear resistance behavior allow ZLFR to preform from the wellhead to the toe of fracture. The field cases indicated that ZLFR can load 30-50% less than other well-known commercial products to maintain the same level pump pressure.
ZLFR® UltraFlo series are liquid form friction reducers, ZLFR® UltraFlo series products are organic solvent based products which has the availability of solid concentration from 30-50%.
ZLFR® UltraFlo series eliminated the organic clay to offer a zero formation damage, strong stability, and easy to handle products. It offers a full range of products covering different salinity levels upto 250,000 ppm TDS.
ZLFR® UltraFlo is used as FR and HVFR.
ZLFR® dry powder can be mixed by Dry-on-the-Fly Unit and does not cause the clumping and fish eye problems. ZLFR® series have an unique history that is successfully replacing premium high brine HVFR emulsion by the same or lower ratio. A significant saving is achieved with the Dry-on-the-fly technology.
The ZLFR® is a series of special friction reduction dry polymer products that have been produced by unique polymerization process for slick water and high viscosity application in fresh and 100% produced water.
When the concentration of ZLFR® goes up to 1.4 lbs/1000 gallons, the best friction reduction rate has been yielded immediately in 0~200,000 TDS brine. The water solution starts to generate viscosity after ZLFR® dosage increased to 4.2 lbs/1000 gallons. The polymer solution with 7-8.4 lbs/1000 gallons of ZLFR® shows very good viscoelasticity behavior.
ZLFR® Dry polymer is used as FR and HVFR.
Please contact ZL technical team on the dry on the fly technology and equipment.